History Channel (US):This Day in History Nov 28, 1520: Magellan reaches the Pacific. American Revolution John Adams replaces Silas Deane, 1777; Automotive Duryea Motor Wagon wins first car race in U.S., 1895; Civil War North and South skirmish at the Battle of Cane Hill, 1862; Cold War Czechoslovakian Communist Party gives up monopoly on political power, 1989; Crime A media controversy ignites over the case of Tawana Brawley, 1987; Disaster Plane crashes over Antarctica, 1979; General Interest Lady Astor becomes MP, 1919; Jeffrey Dahmer murdered in prison, 1994; Hollywood Talk-show host and comedian Jon Stewart born, 1962; Literary William Shakespeare marries Anne Hathaway, 1582; Music The Shangri-Las score a #1 hit with “Leader Of The Pack”, 1964; Old West The Grand Ole Opry begins broadcasting, 1925; Presidential FDR attends Tehran Conference, 1943; Sports Frank Duryea wins first U.S. horseless-carriage race, 1895 Vietnam War Johnson advised to bomb North Vietnam, 1964 The Philippines agrees to send troops to South Vietnam, 1965; World War I New York Stock Exchange resumes bond trading , 1914; World War II Enrico Fermi, architect of the nuclear age, dies, 1954
This Day in History, November 28
On November 28th, 1660, the Royal Society was founded at Gresham College.
In 1520, Ferdinand Magellan entered the Pacific Ocean on his way around the world. He was the first European to sail the Pacific from the east.
In 1919, Virginia-born Nancy Astor became the first woman member of the British Parliament.
In 1925, The Grand Ole Opry, the famed country music show, made its radio debut.
In 1942, a fire at the Cocoanut Grove nightclub in Boston killed 491 people. Most victims suffocated or were trampled to death.
In 1958, the United States fired an intercontinental ballistic missile at full range for the first time.
In 1963, Cape Canaveral, the space center in Florida, was renamed Cape Kennedy to honor the assassinated president. Area residents later voted to revert to the original name.
In 1989, Czechoslovakian Premier Ladislav Adamec agreed to a coalition government. The next day, the Czech Parliament revoked the Communist Party’s monopoly.
In 1992, a fire destroyed parts of the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria, threatening the famous Lipizzaner stallions.
In 1993, Carlos Roberto Reina was elected president of Honduras.
In 1994, serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer and a second inmate were beaten to death by another prisoner at the Columbia Correctional Center in Portage, Wis.
In 2003, an estimated 182 people were killed when two crowded ferries collided during a storm in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
In 2004, a gas explosion in a central China mine killed more than 160 people. About 123 miners escaped.
In 2005, at least 150 miners were killed in a northeast China coal mine explosion. Seventy-one were reported missing.
In 2006, leftist candidate Rafael Correa was declared winner of the Ecuadorian presidential election.
In 2007, a U.S. airstrike in eastern Afghanistan killed 22 Afghan civilian road construction workers. The men, working on a U.S. military contract, died as they slept in tents in a remote mountainous area.
In 2008, at least 400 people were killed and hundreds more wounded in clashes in Nigeria between Muslims and Christians over local elections.
In 2009, golf superstar Tiger Woods was treated and released at a hospital after his car slammed into a fire hydrant and tree near his home in suburban Orlando, Fla. Police said Woods was unconscious and they were told his wife smashed a window with a golf club to pull him from the car.
In 2010, reaction around the world was swift and mostly negative to a new batch of more than 200,000 confidential U.S. diplomatic documents published on the WikiLeaks whistle-blower website. U.S. officials denounced the release, which included many items classified as secret, and branded them a threat to global security.
In 2012, seven expatriate Egyptians, all Coptic Christians who were involved in making an anti-Islam film, Innocence of Muslims, were sentenced to death in absentia by the Cairo Criminal Court.
Copyright 2013 by United Press International
Those born on this date include:
- English writer John Bunyan in 1628
- English poet William Blake in 1757
- John Hyatt, inventor of celluloid, in 1837
- Architect Henry Bacon, designer of the Lincoln Memorial, in 1866
- Motown Records founder and Rock and Roll Hall of fame member Berry Gordy in 1929 (age 84)
- Actor Hope Lange in 1933
- Oscar winner and Rock and Roll Hall of Fame singer/composer Randy Newman in 1943 (age 70)
- Ballet dancer Alexander Godunov and band leader Paul Shaffer (age 64), both in 1949
- Actors Ed Harris in 1950 (age 63), S. Epatha Merkerson (TV’s Law and Order) in 1952 (age 61) and Judd Nelson in 1959 (age 54)
- Movie director Alfonso Cuaron in 1961 (age 52)
- And comedian Jon Stewart in 1962 (age 51).
Copyright 2013 by United Press International
Today in science history
NOVEMBER 28 – BIRTHS – Scientists born on November 28th
American physicist who in 1993 shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with his former teacher, the astrophysicist Joseph H. Taylor, Jr., for their joint discovery of the first binary pulsar (1974). This is an astronomical system of two celestial bodies so close they are separated by only several times the distance between the moon and the earth. Their findings, first reported in 1978, constitute the first indirect proof of the existence of the gravitational waves predicted by Albert Einstein in his theory of relativity.
American psychologist who is Harvard’s first professor in Gender Studies (1997). Her research questions that most traditional theories of human psychological development studied boys and men. She developed a theory based on the experiences of girls and women. In psychological tests of moral judgment, for example, girls were often graded as deficient. But Gilligan demonstrated in her landmark 1982 book, In a Different Voice, was that was beacause girls place more emphasis on feelings and relationships than on objective standards of justice, and boys tend to do the opposite. Before she published her studies, researchers sometimes dropped women from their samples because the women’s different responses complicated the research.
French social anthropologist and leading exponent of structuralism, a name applied to the analysis of cultural systems (e.g., kinship and mythical systems) in terms of the structural relations among their elements. Lévi-Strauss regarded language as an essential common denominator underlying cultural phenomena, a view that forms the basis for his theories concerning the relationships of such societal elements as religion, myth, and kinship. His books include the two-volume Structural Anthropology (1958; 1973). Structuralism has influenced not only 20th-century social science but also the study of philosophy, comparative religion, literature, and film.
English metallurgist (Baronet) who developed manganese steel, an alloy of exceptional durability that found uses in the construction of railroad rails and rock-crushing machinery. Hadfield discovered manganese steel in 1882. It was hardened by quenching it in water from a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade. The hard steel was to be used in the manufacture of tram wheels. He patented his work in 1883-4 but continued to carry out further experiments before publicising his findings in 1888, which were supported by a lecture tour. The first World War provided new markets for manganese steel: spur armour plate and shells, tank treads and soldier’s helmets. By 1919, Hadfields Steel Foundry Co. Ltd. were Sheffield’s biggest employers. [DSB and EB give birth date as 28 Nov 1858. Current Bio. gives 29 Nov 1858.]
Austrian botanist, pioneer in the development of physiological plant anatomy, and the first person to study plant tissue culture (1921). In Physiologische Pflanzenanatomie (1884; “Physiological Plant Anatomy”) he distinguished 12 tissue systems based on function (mechanical, absorptive, photosynthetic, etc.) Although his system was not accepted by other botanists, the analysis of the relations between structure and environment has been useful in the study of plant adaptations to different habitats. In 1902, he released the hypothesis of “totipotency” – that even the smallest unit of a cell is capable of forming a complete plant in the future. In 1913, Haberlandt discovered that a compound found in phloem had the ability to stimulate cell division.
English paleobotanist and leading authority of his time on the structure of fossil plants, one of those who laid the foundations of paleobotany. After studying for his PhD (1882) under German botanist Julius Von Sachs at the University Würzburg, he returned to England and took up teaching. He conducted experiments in the Jodrell Laboratory in Kew Gardens, where he became its honorary keeper (1892-1906). In collaboration with W.C. Williamson, he wrote three papers on fossil-plant morphology (1894-95). Scott continued writing papers after Williamson’s death and in which he described many otherwise unknown fossil plants. He wrote the classic Studies in Fossil Botany, which greatly popularized the subject. [Image: Lyginopteris bermudensiformis]
American inventor and manufacturer who was a pioneer of the plastics industry. He discovered the process for making celluloid. His other inventions included a water-purification system, a sugar-cane mill, a machine for straightening steel rods, a multi-stitch sewing-machine, and a widely used roller bearing. In the 1860s he became interested in finding a substitute for the ivory used to make billiard balls. With his brother Isaac, he improved the techniques of molding pyroxylin (a partially nitrated cellulose) with camphor by dissolving in an alcohol and ether mixture to make it softer and more malleable. This he called “Celluloid,” a name trademarked on 14 Jan 1873. It was the first synthetic plastic, for which he took out a patent in 1870. Later in life he had over 200 patents.
English engineer and naval architect who influenced ship design by developing a method of studying scale models propelled through water and applying the information thus obtained to full-size ships. His first job was as a civil engineer, working for the British railway system. It was not until a few years later that Froude became a naval engineer. He discovered the laws by which the performance of a model in a towing-tank could be extrapolated to the full-size ship when both have the same geometrical shape. This laboratory work was of great concern to the British navy, to maximize the speed and efficiency of their ships. He developed the bilge keel and developed the Froude number as a measure of the effect of gravity on fluid motion.
American traveler and archaeologist whose exploration of Maya ruins in Central America and Mexico (1839-40 and 1841-42) generated the archaeology of Middle America. In 1939, as a lawyer ostensibly on a mission for the U.S. State Department, Stephens went in search of Mayan ruins, which were then all but unknown. He was accompanied by architect Frederick Catherwood, whose meticulous drawings illustrate Stephens’ subsequent books. In Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatán, Stephens described coming upon the ruined city of Copan, which he found so captivating that he promptly purchased the site. It is now owned by the Honduran government.
Born 28 Nov 1700; died 2 Sep 1764 at age 63.
English mathematician and astronomer who was Britain’s fourth Astronomer Royal, though only for the two years before his death. In 1736, Bliss became rector of St Ebbe’s Oxford, and in 1742, he followed Edmond Halley as Savilian Professor of Geometry. Bliss occasionally assisted James Bradley, third A.R. In 1761, he made observations of the transit of Venus when Bradley was unable to do so due to poor health. Bliss succeeded Bradley in 1762. On 1 Apr 1764 Bliss published his observations of the annular eclipse visible from Greenwich. Besides his Observatory work, Bliss also worked for and with the Earl of Macclesfield, on astronomical problems. This work included making meridian observations of a comet approaching the Sun around 1744 at Shirburn Castle and at Greenwich.
NOVEMBER 28 – DEATHS – Scientists died on November 28th
Chinese-American biochemist and experimental endocrinologist who with his co-workers isolated in pure form six of the eight hormones known to be secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Located at the base of the brain, its homones govern reproduction, growth, maturation, and metabolism. Among the hormones Li isolated are ACTH (the adrenocorticotropic hormone and adrenal booster, used in the treatment of arthritis) and HGH (the human growth hormone or somatotropin, which is vital for human growth). He also discovered ß-endorphin, a naturally secreted painkiller (1976) and was first to synthesize the insulin-like growth factor 1, which promotes the growth of cartilage and bones. He was the first to synthesize HGH, in 1970.
Italian-American physicist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1938 as one of the chief architects of the nuclear age. He was the last of the double-threat physicists: a genius at creating both esoteric theories and elegant experiments. In 1933, he developed the theory of beta decay, postulating that the newly-discovered neutron decaying to a proton emits an electron and a particle he called a neutrino. Developing theory to explain this decay later resulted in finding the weak interaction force. He developed the mathematical statistics required to clarify a large class of subatomic phenomena, discovered neutron-induced radioactivity, and directed the first controlled chain reaction involving nuclear fission.
British-born U.S. psychologist influential in establishing experimental and physiological psychology. As one of the foremost psychologists of all English-speaking countries, he did much to stimulate widespread study of the basis of social behaviour. He contributed significantly to more branches and departments of psychology than anyone else writing in English. He was the exponent of hormic psychology, the central idea being that there is an end or purpose which goads us to action, without any real knowledge of its nature, and often without benefit or even thought of pleasure. Human progress can only be determined in terms of “horme” or “drive”. He theorized that human behavior is determined by both instinctive and intentional strivings.
German physicist who was a pioneer in electrochemical research. His early investigations were on the allotropes (different physical forms) of phosphorus and selenium. He was the first to compute the electricity- carrying capacity of charged atoms and molecules (ions), an important factor in understanding electrochemical reactions. He investigated the migration of ions during electrolysis (1853-59), developed expressions for and measured transport numbers. In 1869, he published his laws governing the migration of ions. For his studies of electrical phenomena in rarefied gases, the Hittorf tube has been named for him. Hittorf determined a number of properties of cathode rays, including (before Crookes) the deflection of the rays by a magnet.
British archaeologist who excavated sites in southwestern Turkey and disinterred the remains of one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (at present-day Bodrum, Turkey). Newton joined staff of British Museum in 1840. He helped to establish systematic methods for archaeology. As the first keeper (curator) of Greek and Roman antiquities at the British Museum (1861-85), London, he greatly enriched its collection by making outstanding acquisitions. Along with the chief remains from Halicarnassus, he brought to the museum the bronze Delphian serpent from Istanbul, a sculpture of the Greek goddess Demeter, the colossal lion from Cnidus, and statues from the road to Didyma (Branchidae).
British army officer and archaeologist who excavated many sites in India, including Sarnath and Sanchi. He retired (1861) as a major general after 30 years of service with the Bengal engineers and then was the first director (1861–65, 1870–85) of the Indian Archaeological Survey. In the 13th century, India’s flourishing network of temples and monasteries was wiped out by invading armies, overgrown by forests, buried in humus, and forgotten. When Cunningham made it his mission to locate and dig them up again, in many cases all he had to go on were the accounts written by Fa Hien and Huien Tsiang and the occasional tip of an Ashokan pillar protruding from the earth. He wrote about the tradition of Kangra plastic surgery operations.
German-Russian embryologist who discovered the mammalian egg (1827) and the notochord. He established the new science of comparative embryology alongside comparative anatomy with the publication of two landmark volumes (in 1828 and 1837) covering the range of existing knowledge of the prebirth developments of vertebrates. He showed that mammalian eggs were not the follicles of the ovary but microscopic particles inside the follicles. He described the development of the embryo from layers of tissue, which he called germ layers, and demonstrated similarities in the embryos of different species of vertebrates. He was also a pioneer in geography, ethnology, and physical anthropology.
Died 28 Nov 1801 at age 51 (born 23 Jun 1750).
(also called Déodat De Gratet De Dolomieu) was a French geologist and mineralogist after whom the mineral dolomite was named. A member of the order of Malta since infancy, at age 19 he was sentenced to death for killing a brother knight in a duel, but was pardoned. Following a study of the Alps (1789–90), he described dolomite (1791) The rock, which gave its name to the Dolomite Mountains where it was found, has crystals of calcium and magnesium carbonate, generally white or pinks. As a member of Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt (1798), Dolomieu was captured on the way home and imprisoned at Messina. During his imprisonment he wrote his main treatise on minerals (1801), on the margins of a Bible. [Image right: dolomite][DSB gives date of death as 28 (16? 29?) Nov 1801. EB gives 26 Nov 1801.]
German Jesuit priest and scholar, sometimes called the last Renaissance man. Kircher’s prodigious research activity spanned a variety of disciplines including geography, astronomy, physics, mathematics, language, medicine, and music. He made an early, though unsuccessful attempt to decipher hieroglyphics of the Coptic language. During the pursuit of experimental knowledge, he once had himself lowered into the crater of Vesuvius to observe its features soon after an eruption. He made one of the first natural history collections. Kircher studied animal luminescence, writing two chapters of his book Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae to bioluminescence, and debunked the idea that that an extract made from fireflies could be used to light houses. [DSB gives date of death 28 Nov 1680. EB gives 27 Nov 1680.]
NOVEMBER 28 – EVENTS – Science events on November 28th
VOA Learning English Agriculture Report
Video yêu thích